10:52 Wiki Science 0 Comments

Designed in 1936 and built on its own funds by the manufacturer Émile Dewoitine, the first prototype of the D.520 flew on October 2, 1938; It was followed by a second machine which took off in April 1939. Despite some problems, the prototypes of the D.520 achieved remarkable performances, notably in the fields of level speed, climbing speed and Maneuverability. This was by far the best hunter produced by France before the armistice of 1940.

Monoplane with low wings and retractable landing gear, the D.520 was ordered in large quantities, but by January 1940 only 13 had left the assembly lines. On May 10 of the same year, a single group of the Air Force flew on this type of aircraft. Arrived in the squadrons from 1 February 1940, only 36 were in service on 10 May 1940, a number quite insufficient to face the all powerful Luftwaffe. Nevertheless, he abducted nearly 150 enemy aircraft for a loss of 85. The production of the aircraft continued under the Vichy regime and reached more than 700 aircraft.

This modern and brilliant single-seater fighter, produced until December 1942, was also used by the Germans and equip the aviation of its Romanian, Italian and Bulgarian allies. Indeed when the Germans invaded the unoccupied zone in France in November 1942, they seized more than 400 Dewoitine D.520. Most of these aircraft were used by the Luttwaffe as training chasers, but 60 D.520 were delivered to Italy. The latter, lacking in-line engines, immediately took on board these machines, which entered into service as Gruppi's 13, 22, 24 and 167 second-line fighters, who actively participated in the defense of Naples and Central Italy.

In 1944 the Group of Hunt 1/8 was reformed and equipped with about forty of these "Dewoitine with black crosses". Unable to fight last generation aircraft, they were used against the German pockets of the Atlantic. Produced with 907 copies for the French Air Force including 403 before the armistice, the D 520 was therefore one of the few aircraft to have been used from the beginning to the end of the war.

Specifications : 

Model: Dewoitine D.520   
Wingspan: 10.18 m
Length: 8.76 m
Height: 2.56 m
Engine: 1 engine Hispano-Suiza 12Y in V
Total power: 1 x 910 hp.
Armament: 1 gun of 20 mm
4 machine guns of 7.7mm
Payload : -
Weight in load: 2780 kg
Max. : 529 km / h at 6000 m
Practical ceiling: 11000 m
Max. : 998 Km
Crew: 1

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Airspeed AS.10 Oxford

10:31 Wiki Science 0 Comments

In 1936, a specification was issued by the Air Ministry, demanding an advanced twin-engined aircraft for the Royal Air Force. Airspeed proposed a derivative of AS.6 Envoy, which had some commercial success. The prototype of the AS.10 model, dubbed Oxford, made its first flight in June 1937. British officials placed an initial order for 136 AS.10 in reliance on the reputation of reliability of its predecessor. Deliveries began in November 1937, including the first six Mk.I aircraft, for evaluation at the Central Flying School. 

Resuming the general appearance and proportions of the AS6 Envoy, the Oxford also retained a wooden construction, an identical cell and a retractable landing gear with its tail wheel. Only the engines, the interior fittings and the possibility of installing a dorsal turret differed.

This model was the first British military aircraft to have a scientifically and logically designed cockpit, the instruments being grouped in the center of the dashboard for use by both the instructor and the student. The crew consisted in general of three men and, in addition to the seats for the student pilot and his instructor, the manufacturer had planned the post installation for submachine gunners, bomber, photo operator, navigator and radio. A removable top was used for flight training without visibility.

The Mk.I was a training aircraft for piloting, bombing and firing, while the Mk.II was intended for the training of a pilot, radio or navigator, Star Armstrong Siddeley Cheetah X 375 hp with fixed pitch propellers. The Mk.V, used for the same missions as the Mk.II, was equipped with two 450-horsepower (336 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-985-AN6s driving constant speed propellers. Mk.III and IV remain unresolved.

Large-scale production was widely used as part of the Commonwealth's general training program. Production continued until July 1945, reaching 8586 aircraft, of which 3785 Mk.I, 999 Mk.II, 190 Mk.V, by Airspeed, the remainder being built at De Havilland, Standard Motors and Percival Aircraft.

Several Allied aviations used Oxford including Australia (nearly 400 copies), Canada (200), New Zealand (300), Rhodesia (10) and the Republic of South Africa (700). Some aircraft were also taken into account by the Free French, and a number of them were implemented by the USAAF in Europe. He remained in service in the RAF until 1954.

Specifications :   
Length 10.83 m
Height 4.79 m
Wing span 12.81 m
Wing area 32.4 m²
Drive two Armstrong-Siddeley Cheetah X with 260 kW (355 hp)
Max speed 292 km / h
Service ceiling 5,830 m
Range 880 km
Crew 2-3
Empty weight
Max. Starting weight 3.450 kg

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The I.A.R. IAR-80

01:19 Wiki Science 0 Comments

The IAR-80 was the best World War II fighter produced by Romania. Derived from the Polish fighter P.24E, its performance was comparable to the Fw 190. Although built in Romania, some components had to be imported from France or Germany, which made Romania dependent on Germany after the French defeat and Delayed the development of the aircraft.

The first production batch of IAR-80 was slightly modified compared to the prototype: it is a bit elongated and the cockpit brought back. The first squadrons became operational from April 1941 and participated in the conquest of Transnistria in the summer of 1941. They participated in all the battles of the Romanian army in Stalingrad against the Allied bombing of Ploesti against the Russians From April to September 1944 and then against the Germans until the end of the war.

They were welcomed by the pilots who nevertheless complained of his lack of power and lack of firepower, a problem that will never really be solved because of the shortage of cannons in Romania. Despite their initial quality, the IAR-80s suffer from their inadequate engine. The Romanians could never lay hands on a more powerful model.

The IAR-80A model gave the complete arming of 6 machine guns thanks to the German machine-gun deliveries. It also received a more powerful and heavier engine than the original IAR-80 and had to reinforce its fuselage to compensate for these weight increases in the front.

The experience of war proved that light machine-guns alone were no longer sufficient in air combat. On the modified IAR-80B model, two light machine guns were replaced by heavy ones. Radio equipment was also improved. Twenty of the IAR-80 B were in fact IAR-81 A dive bombers completed as a hunter.

The appearance of the American Liberators over Romania obliged again to have a more consistent armament, endowing them with 20 mm guns. All IAR-80 C were also constructed from IAR-81B cells. They kept the ability to carry bombs under the wings. This was the first version to receive self-sealing tanks. Beginning in mid-1944, the IAR-80B and IAR-80C were brought to the IAR-81C arming standard, with two 20 mm Mauser guns and four machine guns. The converted aircraft took the designation IAR-80M.

Specifications : 

Design Engineer (s) Ion Grossu
Manufacturer Întreprinderea Aeronautică Română
Year (s) 1940-43
Length 8.90 m
Wing span 10.50 m
Height 3.60 m
Wing area 15,97 m²
Drive an air-cooled 14-cylinder twin-engine
IAR K.14-1000A
Power 764 kW (1025 hp)
Max speed 550 km / h at 3970 m altitude
Service height 10,500 m
Range 940 km
Empty weight1,780 kg
Max take-off weight 2,550 kg
Crew 1 pilot
Armament 4-6 machine guns or guns 

Dumping ammunition up to 425 kg bombs 

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11:12 Wiki Science 0 Comments

The CW-21 Demon was a light fighter developed on the basis of the CW-19R multi-purpose two-seater monoplane, itself derived from the CW-19L and 19W. Designed in 1938 by engineer Willis Wells, the all-metal single-winged low-wing aircraft flew for the first time on October 11, 1938. Designated CW-21A, it was equipped with a 1,000 hp 9-cylinder radial engine cooled By air, of a conventional landing gear retractable in tubular fairings by pivoting the wheel towards the trailing edge of the wing and its armament consisted of two cal machine guns. 50 (12.7 mm) on the engine hood and a cal machine gun. 30 (7.62 mm) to each wing. The CW-21B version differed only by installing a more conventional landing gear, retracting from the wing to the fuselage fitting, and completely closed by hatches. The aircraft, although without pilot's protections or fuel tanks, had satisfactory performance and combat qualities, but far from matching those of the best American fighter of the moment, the P-40 Tomahawk, so it was Decided to produce it in series only for export.

Thirty two Demon were built for China, where they entered service in February 1939. Technically superior to their Japanese opponents Nakajima Ki.27 Nate, but in the hands of inexperienced pilots, they became very easy targets for the Japanese air force, Especially when it was massively equipped with the Mitsubishi A6M Rei Sen (Zero, "Zeke"). Another 24 copies of the CW-21 were sent to the Netherlands for the Dutch East Indies, where they entered service in March 1940. The German attack in Europe and the Japanese advance in Asia led the Batavian metropolis to urgently propose The use of his new hunters at the American Volunteer Group (AVG, nicknamed "Flying Tigers"), by General Claire L. Chennault.

A group of three first aircraft, driven by Erik Shilling (flight leader), Lacy Mangleburg and his wingman left Rangoon in Burma to join the main base of the Flying Tigers in Kunming. But the absence of radio sets, engine problems due to fuel, and very poor weather conditions led to the loss of the Demon which crashed on the mountainside during the journey.

Subsequently, other CW-21s were shipped to the various theaters of operations of the Pacific War (Burma, Assam, Java, October to December 1940). In spite of the weakness of its armament, the lightness of the craft, even if it ensured a remarkable maneuverability during the fighting, did not allow him to "cash" as well as other apparatus, friends or opponents, and his The last supportive offensive mission, close to failure, took place on March 5, 1942. Delegated to utilitarian tasks far from the front, the Demon had virtually no impact on the unfolding of the world conflict.

Specifications :  

Wingspan 10.66 m
Length 8.29 m
Wing area 16.19 m2
Empty weight 1 534 kg
With armament 2,041 kg
Performance :
Max speed 505 km / h

Internal 2 machine guns Browning M1919

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