Avro Lincoln

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During the Second World War, the mission of heavy bombardment in the RAF returned mainly to three machines now become legendary; and in particular the Avro Lancaster. But they eventually had to be replaced because they became obsolete address modern hunters. One solution was to thoroughly modernize the Lancaster in order to give birth to a new machine. Thus was born at the end of hostilities the Avro Lincoln, the last heavy bomber piston engines designed in the UK.  

In 1943, the Air Ministry issued the Specification 14/43 for a new type of heavy bomber that can evolve at high altitude in order to get as much as possible away from the flak, which was rampant among the bomber formations allies. The aircraft manufacturer Avro responded by proposing to develop a new four-engine from its main unit while serving in the RAF Lancaster. The development from an existing base already was a specialty manufacturer since Lancaster had itself been extrapolated from the twin-engine Manchester.

The new aircraft received the designation of Model 694 by the manufacturer. It was in the form of a median wing monoplane large scale, a four with a double tail fin and a retractable landing gear. Unlike its predecessors the new bomber was planned from the start to the carriage of H2S radar in a radome under the fuselage. Its defensive armament consisted primarily three turrets, a nose, tail and backbone, all equipped with two heavy machine guns of 12.7mm caliber. The offensive armament was when he composed to a little more than six tons of bombs contained in the hold. Externally the new aircraft had at an enlarged Lancaster. He was named Lincoln.

The aircraft first flew June 9, 1944, three days after the Normandy landings. Some minor changes were made and a second prototype was built, leading its maiden flight on November 13, 1944. The origination forecasts provided for the delivery of more than 2,200 aircraft. The end of hostilities signaled the end of Lincoln in the RAF since the first units entered service in August 1945, just days after the atomic bombing of Japan by the United States. Finally Lincoln B Mk-I entered service only 72 copies, while better protected B Mk-II was assembled up to 465 copies. Above all, it was the only one really fully with its H2S radar and all the possibilities provided by this type of system. 

Quickly Lincoln RAF were based in Germany, as part of the occupation forces, and the Pacific. Lincoln replaced postwar Lancaster, Halifax and Stirling, the three main British heavy bombers. Within the RAF, they flew in the company of Washington, the Boeing B-29 acquired by the United Kingdom in 1946. In 1950, the RAF undertook its Lincoln in combat operations in Kenya and especially in Malaysia face a Marxist guerrilla particularly violent. Lincoln flying under the protection of Gloster Meteor and De Havilland Mosquito, breathless meet.

But the UK is not the only country to have used the Lincoln as the Royal Australian Air Force and the Fuerza Aérea Argentina used it respectively 73 and 26 copies. Australian Lincoln as they intervened in Malaysia in reinforcing their British counterparts, while the Argentine aircraft flew primarily for sovereignty missions, although a South American Lincoln became the first postwar bomber to fly over Antarctica in a strategic reconnaissance mission.
Lincoln RAF also filled of aerial espionage missions and strategic reconnaissance, under the designation R Lincoln Mk-I. They retained their defensive armament while the load of bombs had disappeared in favor of a system of recognition and observation revolving around the H2S radar and camera systems. Twenty of these aircraft served in the RAF. It is precisely one of those planes was shot down by a MiG-15 Soviet fighter in May 1957 over the corridor of Berlin. This is the first British aircraft down in Europe since May 1945.

Lincoln also served as a flying testbed for various propellers and jet engines developed by British industry. The bombing of Lincoln gave way to Canberra jets in 1955, the last of them finally leaving the service in 1963.

Specifications : 
Crew 7
Length 23.86 m
Wingspan 36.58 m
Height 5,27 m
Empty weight 19.686 kg
Loaded weight 34.019 kg
4 x12-cylinder V-engines Rolls-Royce Merlin 85 with 1774 hp each

Max speed 475 km / h

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