Focker-Wulf FW 190

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Focker-Wulf  FW 190 . Photos from Wikimedia commons

The Focke Wulf 190 was designed in conjunction with the Hawker Typhoon, that is to say in 1937. While the latter is expected to replace the Hawker Hurricane, the Fw 190 to replace her Bf 109.

Kurt Tank, who was the Focke Wulf specialized executive, decided to use a landing gear track (space between two train legs) wide to ensure stability on the ground that the Bf 109 who met many problems with its narrow train.

At the engine, the engineers had a choice between Daimler-Benz DB 601 online and 139 BMW star. They opted for the use of a radial engine that better support the damage in battle than in-line engines of the Bf 109. The architect of Focke Wulf, R. Blaser, was in charge of building up the prototype that was to be equipped a bubble canopy to provide high visibility to the driver.

The first prototype, the Fw 190V1, takes off June 1, 1939 at the hands of Hans Sander near Bremen. The first two aircraft were equipped with a large propeller pan which was connected to the master torque of the engine hood. Because of the important problems of overheating it generated, it had to be replaced.

For its part, the BMW 139 engine 1550ch was replaced by the BMW 801 at two-cylinder double star of 1560ch in its first version for the Fw 190 (Version C1) and will 2400ch in its most recent form, the F this substitution happened in light of the fact that the BMW 139, in spite of the cooling fan with 10 cutting edges introduced between the engine block and the propeller, it overheating. The BMW 801 required to lengthen the nose of the aircraft and back the cockpit to keep the center of gravity.
The first 9 preproduction machines Fw 190A-0 had a wing region of ​​15m². With the new motor, wing zone was extended to 18,30m² to reestablish the flight qualities of the air ship. This arrangement will be kept for the production version.

Operational testing in 1940 did not see the emergence of new special problems. However, the Luftwaffe pilot considered arming the Fw 190A-1, with four assault rifles MG 17 of 7.92, inadequate.

One hundred Fw 190A-1 were built in Bremen and Hamburg until the end of May 1941. Their top speed was 625 km/h in level. He was occupied with battle in September 1941. Following commissioning in September 1941 the Fw 190A-1 in the 26 II./JG based Moorseele (Belgium), the RAF suffered many losses and it will have to wait until early 1942 to actually understand what devices they had to do.

Production of the Fw 190 has many industrial facilities Cottbus, Marienburg, Neubrandenburg, Schwerin, Sorau, Tutow, assembly lines of Ago and Fieseler. The Fw 190A will be built in several sub-versions, to 13291 copies. Alternatives B and C were not mass produced.

The Fw 190D was powered by a Junkers Jumo 213A-1 to V12 with an output of 1800ch to ring radiator, lessening drag. With a specific end goal to coordinate this motor, it was important to extend the nose of the Fw 190, which earned him the name "The Fw 190 Long Nose". The drift and the rudders were extended. This gadget first flew in May 1944 and saw production begin in series in September 1944 under the name Fw 190D-9 since it succeeded the Fw 190A-8. They were put into service within 54 III./JG who was responsible for the air defense of the base where were the Me 262 Schwalbe Kommando Nowotny.

The Fw 190E, reconnaissance version was never built. Versions F and G were reserved for the ground attack.

The Fw 190 proved to be a particularly formidable unit and fears, as well as by the English by the Soviets. He allowed many German ace to win the majority of their victories. Although significantly higher than the Bf 109 in terms of armament and maneuverability at low and medium altitudes, he never replaced it completely. It was not until the Spitfire XII and Tempest British side and the Soviet Yak-3 side to outperform the final.

He also attacked British ports until 1942, and attempted to dispute the mastery of the sky during the landing. Legend has it that only 2 Fw 190 were able to take off June 6: in fact, it seems that 760 outputs were made. At the end of June 1944, the Fw 190 had slaughtered 526 Allied aircraft for the loss of 551 in combat. The Bodenplatte operation would see the destruction of a large number of Fw 190.

By mid-1943, he served in the defense of the Reich, especially in night fighter missions to intercept raids of British bombers. He also faced the American day bombers, with a heavier armament. He fought until the fall of Berlin.

The Fw 190 appeared on the Russian front in September 1942. It was used to support ground troops, particularly those trapped in Kessels. Until 1943, he gave back the Luftwaffe air superiority. Later, to replace the Ju-87 and surpassed the 129 Hs annihilated, it was converted into a tank destroyer. In 1944 he was himself overwhelmed by the La-7 and Yak-3. Azul squadron, the Air Force Spanish volunteers on the Russian front, used the Fw 190A and G from September 1942 to July 1943, and in the defense of the Reich.

Hungary received 16 Fw 190F-8 November 8, 1944, for training, and the Fw 190G (72 in total). They ultimately served to the ultimate defense of Hungary until March 1945.

The Fw 190 was also deployed in North Africa, from November 1942 to May 1943, before being hired in Sicily. He made of ground attack missions and the Allies contra hard, sinking even a submarine.

When King Michael of Romania committed his coup on 23 August 1944, which was to bring Romania into the Allies, 22 Fw 190 were captured. They were never used, but 9 of them were confiscated by the Soviets.

Japanese air force received a Fw 190A-5 for evaluation. Turkey received 72 Fw 190A-3 between October 1942 and March 1943. They remained in service until 1949. Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia (1 copy) made use of the Fw 190 after the war.

The Air Force used between February and April 1946 Fw 190A-5 and A-7 in the Normandie-Niemen GC under the name NC 900. They were built at the plant Cravant 70 copies from late 1944 to 18 February 1946.

In total, about 20,000 Fw 190 were produced during the war with a maximum rate of 22 aircraft per day. 28 survived and are on display in museums, including one at the Paris museum. Since 1997, the company Flug Werk GmbH built replicas of Fw 190A-8 (20 copies) and some Fw 190D.

Focke-Wulf Fw 190 A-8 (1944)

Wingspan: 10.51 m
Length: 9.00 m
Height: 3.95 m
Wing area: 18.3 m²
Engine: BMW 801 D-2
Loaded weight: 4400 kg
Wing loading 239 kg / m²
Max speed 656 km / h in 6000 m height
Ceiling: 10.600 m
Range: 800 km
Armament: two 13 mm MG 131 above the engine,

two 20-mm MG 151 / 20E controlled by the propeller arc shooting in the wing roots, two 20-mm MG 151 / 20E uncontrolled on propeller circle around everywhere in the outer wings

Operators : 

 Spanish State
 United Kingdom
 United States


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